I am a strong proponent of intentional training. When I train, I break moderation into two parts: mechanical and relational.
The mechanical portion is about how to deal with “tasks,” such as handling reposts, expiring dead deals, the ins-and-outs of spam busting, etc. To learn this, new mods work with an experienced mod in stages. They watch the mod do the work and talk them through it. Later, the mod will do halfway do the work while asking them what do they need to do now (they only have to talk, not do), then they do the work while the mod asks guiding questions. Finally, the mod silently watches while they learn and gives feedback as necessary. This will last 1-2 weeks.
The relational portion is about dealing with members…and yourself. My metaphor for the moderator’s role is “moderator as community leader.” I draw from leadership materials, psychology, systems theory, and everything else I can get my hands on. They receive a document/workbook that we go through together (about four chapters currently). My goal is to help the new mods learn how to leverage relationships to increase their influence with community members, especially focusing on its leaders.
I take two to three days going over the relational portion. We only go a couple hours or so a day. Then they transition into shadowing mode. This way they are caught in a pattern of action-reflection. After I’m doing going over the material, we meet regularly to continue the reflection portion of the training.